Several list members are in a quandary about file handling. One member wrote privately, but I hope won't mind my quoting: > I have not made the jump to FBtoC because of file handling and the > general confusion within Macdom about volrefs, FSpecs, FSrefs and > er... the other type! File handing in FB and FBtoC. FB only ------- 1. name alone open "I", 1, "SomeFile" [a file in app's folder] 2. name and one number open "I", 1, "SomeFile",, wdRefNum [wdRefNum is an (obsolete) working directory] 3. name and two numbers open "I", 1, "SomeFile",, vRefNum, dirID FB and FBtoC ------------ 4. FSSpec open "I", 1, @fileSpec An FSSpec record contains name, vRefNum and parID (same as dirID in #3 above). FBtoC only ---------- 5. FSRef open "I", 1, @fileRef Limitation: open "A" not yet implemented in FBtoC. 6. CFURLRef open "I", 1, @fileURLRef Limitation: open "A" not yet implemented in FBtoC. From the brief survey above, it is apparent that the easiest way of converting old file code for FBtoC is to migrate to FSSpecs throughout. You can make the conversion while working on your project with good old FB4 and FB Compiler.app. When you come to use FB5/FBtoC, your FSSpec code should "just work". #1-4 share the well-known naming limitations of pre-OS X code (31 MacRoman characters). Once your project runs with FBtoC, you may want to migrate further to FSRefs, to allow 255 Unicode chars. CFURLRefs are typically used only for rare special reasons. Robert P.